He Naiwei, male, Mongol nationality, born in December, 1930, is a native of
Find Problems, Solve Problems
Zhang Yuhuan (hereinafter referred to as Zhang): teacher He, the caution that the
He Naiwei (hereinafter referred to as He): in 1979, I went to
Zhang: these reflections attracted you. And later, what did you do?
He: I took a boat to
Zhang: the title of that report is “the
He: I was considering this problem on the way from
Zhang: in that report, the title is distinct, and you have used a large amount of data.
He: as for articles, reports, dissertations, they must be distinct at first. In addition, it is not enough to have a distinct viewpoint only, and the problem argument must be scientific. The conditions and grounds of the argument must be clear, detailed, accurate, and convictive.
Zhang: how did you do that? Please talk about it in detail.
He: the aim of going to the forest area was to originally do an ordinary forest investigation. As a result, workers and cadres in the forest area reflected that the forest had been severely destroyed and the ecological environment had become worse. I went to the top of the mountain to see forest and mountain conditions, and I found that it was true. Among Ngawa,
In accordance with the census data of forest resources from 1976 to 1977, the forest area in Ngawa at that time was more than 117 hectares, calculating according to the annual growth rate of 1.14 cubic meters per hectare, the annual growth is 1340 thousand cubic meters, and then multiplied by 60% of outturn percentage, and then Ngawa can only produce 800 thousand cubic meters every year. In accordance with scientific felling methods, total annual felling can not exceed the annual growth total. What are the actual conditions? In 1978, Ngawa submitted 1630 thousand cubic meters of wood according to the plan of the country, and the felling and production amount of the local area was 270 thousand cubic meters, and forest industrial enterprises used 50 thousand cubic meters, so 1950 thousand cubic meters of wood were cut in that year, which exceeded, by about one and a half times that of annual growth. Besides this part, at that time, common people in that area consumed about 2000 thousand cubic meters of forest resources. In 1978, they also burned 8100 thousand jins of wood charcoal to deliver to Chengdu, and the consumption of forest resources in these aspects were larger than national felling totals. In addition, at that time, communes and production teams also cut wood in national forest areas to sell. The country, local government, and common people cut wood. However, what did they do about afforestation? However, it has been awarded as an “advanced enterprise” because it completed the wood production task well. Maoergai Forestry Bureau is located in
Zhang: at that time, the environment results of forest destruction were not a concern of others, but you were concerned.
He: at that time, people didn’t take notice of this problem, but workers and cadres in forest regions realized, and they had personal experiences. Specifically speaking, they suffered a great deal. If you ride in a car from
Old workers at the Hongwei Forestry Bureau of Ngawa said: “in the 1950s, with many forests, the climate here was very good; in the 1970s, with more felling and little new planting, forests were destroyed, and the amount of rainfall decreased obviously.”
The forest-destruction conditions on
The water loss and soil erosion in Yuexi County is very serious, and Niuri River washes away sediment as much as 2150 thousand tons every year, which amounts to five-inches of topsoil of one tenth of the farmland across the whole county; in all, the amount sediment washed away from Niuri River over the past twenty years has reached 46.93 million tons.
Zhang: what was your aim in calculating this amount and writing this report?
He: at that time, some leaders in charge of forestry in
Zhang: you didn’t agree with this viewpoint, so you thought about how to put forward different opinions. And finally, this investigation report was formed. And it had great influence after publication.
He: at that time, forests in Ngawa,
My investigation report was published in Outline Paper of the
Zhang: it is known to me that this investigation report aroused a great discussion. In addition, as for the issue that “the
He: originally, I only thought of the Ministry of Forestry, namely only paying attention to wood production but not concerning environmental degradation, and I never thought that the Changjiang Water Resources Committee would emphasize: the sediment discharge of the Yangtze River hasn’t increased, and the sediment discharge of main streams of the Yangtze River hasn’t increased or decreased obviously, so the Yangtze River will not change into the second Yellow River.
For this reason, I published nine articles in response in 1980, 1981, 1990, and 1999. In 1999, in the article Never Let the Yangtze River Change into the Second Yellow River, I concluded my opinions basically. Firstly, I said that the saying, the Yangtze River is at risk of changing into the second Yellow River, is a kind of analogy, that is to say, if forests in the Yangtze river basin are destroyed, water loss and soil erosion will be enlarged, so the environmental degradation in the Yellow River valley will appear in the Yangtze river basin; secondly, the Yangtze river basin and the Yellow River valley are different in climate, geography, geology, and soil, but the harm of forest deterioration and water loss and soil erosion are very serious; thirdly, the growth and decline of forest cover and the development and variation of water loss and soil erosion in the Yangtze river basin are related to the sediment change of the Yangtze River, the special feature of the Yangtze River is that the harm of bed-load gravels are more serious and far, so we must strengthen soil and water conservation.
After the investigation report Discussion on the Risk of the Yangtze River to Change into the Second Yellow River was published, I gained the National Forestry Good News Award, and the following achievements were formed.
Firstly, push forward the significance of ecological environment problems and the development of ecology. Academician Li Wenhua of the Chinese Academy of Engineering said: “since the article Will the Yangtze River become the second Yellow River was published in Guangming Daily in 1979, there have been more and more reports and articles on the destruction of ethe cological environment in Chinese newspapers and magazines. Finally, a national large discussion regarding “function of the forest” as the center was formed from 1981 to 1982. The concern of “ecological balance” and “ecological benefit” is not limited to the academic field, and it began to enter the decision level and the masses. This is the first popularization of ecological sense in
Secondly, the mentioning of and the discussion of “the Yangtze River is risk of changing into the second Yellow River” were submitted to the Party Central Committee through its publication in the Outline Paper of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, which was also published in Information Service twice. In addition, it was of concern to the Party Central Committee, so two projects, namely “shelterbelt networks construction in the middle and upstream of the
Thirdly, promote the decisions and implementation of the natural protection forest project and the project of returning grain plots to forestry in the middle and upstream of the Yangtze River, and also promote the development of national compulsory tree-planting activities.
Zhang: through this discussion, what gains did you have in academics?
He: research method. At the initial stage of ecological economy research, early warning research is very important. Early warning research is stating the harm of environmental degradation towards social economy through steps, such as warning, signs, cause, and countermeasures and so on, to raise concerns of society and government with a clear warning, and to achieve the aim of implementing nature protection, carrying out the construction of an ecological environment, and promoting the coordinated and sustainable development of ecology and economy. Discussion on the Risk of the Yangtze River to Change into the Second Yellow River is a successful case of early warning research.
The sign in this case is that the current water of the Yangtze River is as yellow as that of the Yellow River, deterioration of natural and ecological environment, and frequent floods and drought (in recent years, the water pollution in the Yangtze River is serious, someone put forward “the Yangtze River is at risk of changing into the second Yellow River” again); the cause is destroying forests, cutting natural forests, serious water loss and soil erosion, and decreased ability for containing water on the earth's surface; countermeasures are protecting and building forests and implementing soil and water conservation. Early warning research has become one of my main methods.
Zhang: besides this article, what articles were finished in early warning research?
He: a few. For example, Crisis and Perceptiveness of Forest Sea in Lesser Khingan Mountains written in 1980 and Xishuangbanna (Forest) Urgently Awaits to Be Saved written in 1980, I revealed the situation that Chinese natural forests are in resource crisis and ecological deterioration for the first time; The Yellow River Flows Forever written in 1997 and Several Important Issues on Ecological Environment Construction in Northwest Regions written in 2003 were early warning research, pointing out problems and putting forward measurements.
The article The Yellow River Flows Forever was written wit the aim of changing the Yellow River into a continental river as advocated by Lin Yishan and Liu Huiyong, authorities in the water conservancy field; the article Several Important Issues on Ecological Environment Construction in Northwest Regions was the discussion towards several specific problems in Report of Strategic Research Project Achievements on Water Resource Allocation, Ecological Environment Construction, and Sustainable Development in Northwest Regions written by the Northwest Water Resource Project Team of the Chinese Academy of Engineering led by Qian Zhengying. Lin Yishan, Qian Zhengying, academicians of the
In the construction development of
Zhang: please talk about your life road, research experiences, your principles, personal integrity, and research style, so as to provide some references for people of later generations.
He: I was born with a silver spoon in my mouth. My grandfather was a Jinshi in the Qing dynasty. In addition, my great grandfather was a general in
I learned at an old-style private school at the very beginning, and then I joined a class at primary school in the middle of the course. After the Japanese occupied the Northeast three provinces of China, the middle school was called “domestic high school”, and the headmaster and main teachers at the schools were Japanese, so I was disgusted with the Japanese and I didn’t want to learn Japanese. And at that time, I thought that people who like to learn Japanese would be “traitors to
And at that time, one of my sisters was studying in
The first half year of my freshmen year was political training, and in the second half of the same year, the Agricultural College of North China University, Agricultural College of Peking University, and the Agricultural College of Tsinghua University emerged, and the China
In the fourth year, the Forest Department departed from the
I came from the reality of the planned economy, so I proposed to seize the realities, researching countermeasures in accordance with existing problems in reality, finding problems, and solving problems. I think that it is very important to find problems, because you can find methods to solve problems only through finding problems. At present, some Administrative Departments report only what is good while concealing what is unpleasant, so it is extremely important to find problems. I propose paying attention to reality, putting forward problems, and solving problems, so that we can facilitate the coordinated and sustainable development of the social economy and natural protection. My research almost walks this way.
You must deal with the relationship with others. In this issue, my principle of consistency is treating others equally. If they need, I will help them if it is within my grasp. I pursue integrity, heartiness, fairness, justice, and showing good intention towards others. I will struggle for the interests for qualified comrades, but I have never sought benefits for myself.
I work diligently and conscientiously, and I willingly bear the burden of hard work. I am always on a business trip, went to the place where conditions are hard; sometimes, I have to stand on the train, because I can not buy a seat ticket. Some work is arranged by the organization or leaders contingently, and it is very urgent, so I have to work overtime. I try my best to complete the task with all my heart and I don’t bother about fame and interests.
The Ministry of Forestry has invited me to be the leader of the expert team of forest protection investigation several times; I write reports in accordance with the results investigated. I have never done things becasue the Ministry of Forestry wanted me to. My objective is to write investigation reports as good as I can.
As for dissertation, I strive for new viewpoints and new opinions. In my research, I have always considered whether I shall publish monographs. And the result is that ecological economics is not very mature, which is not appropriate for writing monographs, so I write dissertations.
In my research, another feature is that I do not fear the authorities; I even dare challenge the authorities. Before I wrote The Yellow River Flows Forever, a viewpoint that the
Zhang: what are your basic viewpoints and hopes of your research field?
He: my research field is ecological environment economy. I think that the direction of this field fits the Scientific Outlook on Development. On the problem of implementing Scientific Outlook on Development, this field can play a critical role. At present, this discipline is newly started, but there aren’t enough theories and methods. Comrade Li Zhou wants to research the study of ecological economy, and I support him. It is listed as a key discipline by the Institute, and it shows that this discipline is valued. Theories and methods of the study of ecological economy have not been solved, and we can not solve the sustainable problems in socialist
Therefore, how to implement the Scientific Outlook on Development is also a leading edge problem in the field of ecological economy. In the No.1 document of the Party Central Committee this year, ecological construction and ecological agriculture are mentioned. How to do it? We need to make innovations on the basis of methods and technologies of ecological agriculture. In the past several thousand years,
As for young scholars, I have three suggestions. Firstly, in order to make scientific science research, you should firmly walk the way of socialism. You can implement a private economy and shareholding economy, but you should also develop the publicly owned economy and social welfare cause. If you don’t admit the socialist road, you are westernization totally. The American road doesn’t work in
Finally, I will offer up lines of a play to young scientific research workers:
In so short a life,
Don’t spend your time in vein.
Undervalue fame and wealth,
Make more contributions;
In the flourishing age,
There are many chances.
Only if you struggle,
You will gain abundant achievements.
Zhang Yuhuan, female, graduated from the Water Conservancy Department of Shenyang Agricultural College. And she was sent to the Rural Development Institute of the
Translated by Feng Weijiang.
Translated by Feng Weijiang.
Editor: Wang Daohang